431: Antonsen, Elmer H. Elements of German: Phonology and Morphology. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 2007. 136 pp. ISBN 978-0-8173-1583-2.
- 400: Language
- 430: German and related languages
- 431: Writing systems, phonology, and phonetics of standard German
Elmer Antonsen’s Elements of German is a crash course on the phonology of spoken German. Phonology consists of breaking down a language into tiny sounds and categorizing each type of pronunciation. Each different way a “g” can be vocalized has a separate symbolic representation. Each different “n” has another set and so on. Antonsen’s categorization (and attempted standardization) of spoken German will make you very aware of how your mouth and your tongue is positioned. There are bilabial fricatives (to make the “Pf” sound), voiceless alveolar affricates (the “ts” in tsetse), palatal nasal sounds (the second “n” in niño), as well as numerous other types of vocalizations (don’t worry, he lists them all).